Before you continue the lesson, read the following passage and try to see how the sentences are formed in Simple Present Tense.

Mohan is a taxi driver. He has a taxi. He drives his taxi daily. But on Sundays, he doesn’t drive his taxi. He stays at home.
The verb is,  has, drivestay are in the simple present

Primary Helping (Auxiliary) Verbs are of three types:

1. Verbs ‘TO BE’ – Is, are, am, was, were, has/have been, had been
2. Verbs ‘TO HAVE’ – Has, have, had
3. Verbs ‘TO DO’ – Do, does, did

The verb “TO BE” is used as – Is / are / am / was / were.इसका हिन्दी में अर्थ होता है “होना” (“to be” or be something).

The simple meaning of the verb ” TO HAVE” denotes “possession”.

( “TO HAVE” का हिन्दी में प्रचलित अर्थ है “पास /कब्जे में होना”) ।

पास होना व्यक्त करने के लिए हर बार ‘पास’ शब्द का प्रयोग जरूरी नही है जैसे – ‘मेरे पास जानकारी है’ को ‘मुझे जानकारी है’ भी कह सकते हैं ।

” To have” is used as – Has/have/ had. As helping or auxiliary verbs. Here we will learn about its simple meaning “Possession”.

The simple meaning of the verb “To do”  is “to perform an action.” It is used as – Do/ does/did.

A subject may be in three forms Static, Active or Passive.

In a sentence, if a subject does not perform any action then it is called as a static subject.

In a sentence, with the static subject, we use the static verb “To be”  as – am/is/are/was were/has been/had been.

but when a subject performs an action then it is called as an active subject.

In a sentence, with the active subject, we use the action verb “To do”  as – do/does/did.

and when something happens with the subject or any action is done upon the subject then it is said to be  Passive Subject

In a sentence, with the passive subject, we use the participle form of the verb.

Simple Present Tense with The Verb ‘To be’

The principal use of the simple present is to refer to an action or event that takes place habitually,

but with the verb “to be” the simple present tense also refers to a present or general state, whether temporary, permanent or habitual.

I am happy.

She is beautiful.

The verb to be in the simple present can also be  used to
state about something that is true in the present moment.
Example-

He is 16 years old.

He is a student.

The verb to be is the most important verb in the English language

The verb “To be” is used as – Is /are/am.

इसका हिन्दी में अर्थ होता है “होना” (to be or be something).

In a sentence, with a static subject (subject does not perform any action)

usually, main verbs are missing there and

according to their tense, we use Primary helping verb“To Be” (is, are, am) as the main verb.

Subject PronounsTo be verb 
IamI am happy.
youareYou are crazy.
he/she/itisHe is 16 years old. She is beautiful. It is an umbrella.
weareWe are friends.
Ruchi बड़ी मोहक लड़की है । Ruchi is a very charming girl.
theyareThey are kind boys.

Example-

मैं खुश हूँ ।I am happy.
Aman घर पर है ।Aman is at home.
Ruchi बड़ी मोहक लड़की है ।Ruchi is a very charming girl.
ve सब विद्धार्थी हैं ।They all are students.
 Ruchi कल अनुपस्थित थी ।Ruchi was absent yesterday.
vah मेरे पड़ोसी थे ।He was my neighbor.
ve हमेशा खुश हो ।They are always cheerful.
Pakistan में सब लोग खराब नही है ।All people are not bad in Pakistan.
ऐसे अवसर दुर्लभ है ।Such occasions are rare.
मेरा पेट भरा हुआ है ।My stomach is full.
मेरे पांच दोस्त है ।I have five friends
Ruchi के बाल लम्बे हैं ।Ruchi has long hair.
I कुछ भी अनुभव नही है ।I have no experience.
आप एक कप चाय जरूर लीजिये ।Do have a cup of tea.

 

Rule – To Be Verbs – is/am/are/was/were
Type of SentenceRule
PositiveSubject + To Be Verb (is/are/am) + object (.)
NegativeSubject + To Be Verb(is/are/am) + not + object (.)
InterrogativeTo Be Verb(is/are/am) + Subject + object (?)
Interrogative-NegativeTo Be Verb(is/are/am) + Subject + Not + object (?)

Examples

Hindi एक आसान भाषा है ।Hindi is an easy language.
Hindi एक आसान भाषा नही है ।Hidi is not an easy language.
क्या Hindi एक आसान भाषा?Is Hindi an easy language?
He तुम्हारा दोस्त हूँ ।He is your friend.
He तुम्हारा दोस्त नही हूँ । He is not your friend.
क्या he तुम्हारा दोस्त हूँ?Is he your friend?
वह बीमार है ।He is ill.
वह बीमार नही है ।He is not ill.
क्या वह बीमार है?Is he ill?
वे भूखे हैं ।They are hungry.
वे भूखे नही हैं ।They are not hungry.
वह हमारा किरायेदार था ।He was our tenant.
वह हमारा किरायेदार नही था ।He was not our tenant.
क्या वह हमारा किरायेदार नही था?Was he not our tenant?
मैं ईमानदार था ।I was honest.
मैं ईमानदार नही था ।I was not honest.
क्या मैं ईमानदार था?Was I honest?
क्या मैं एक ईमानदार कर्मचारी नही था?Was I not an honest worker?
रास्ता पत्थरों और गड़्ढ़ों से भरा था ।The road was full of stones and holes.
वह दर्जी है ।He is a tailor.
यह एक अपराध है ।This is a crime.
पिछले साल फसल बहुत अच्छी थी ।The crops were very well last year.
परसों शुक्रवार था ।The day before yesterday was Friday.
सैर करना अच्छी आदत है ।Walking is a good habit.
वह भरोसे का आदमी नही है ।He is not a reliable person.
वह अपने कमरे में नही थी ।She was not in her room.
वह मूर्ख लड़की है ।She is an idiot girl.
यह तुम्हारा महत्वपूर्ण कार्य है ।This is your important work.
केला सेहत के लिए अच्छा है ।Banana is good for health.
क्या वह भूखा है?Is he hungry?
तुम्हारा बेटा भूखा और प्यासा होगा ।Your son will be hungry and thirsty.
क्या वे भूखे नही है?Are they not hungry?
वहां बहुत बंदर है ।There are many monkeys.
यह पढ़ना बहुत मुश्किल है ।It is very difficult to read.
पूनम को सोमवार को आना है ।Poonam is to come on Monday.

 Simple Present Tense with The Verb ‘To have’

The simple meaning of the verb ” To have” denotes “possession”.

( “TO HAVE” का हिन्दी में प्रचलित अर्थ है “पास /कब्जे में होना”) । पास होना व्यक्त करने के लिए हर बार ‘पास’ शब्द का प्रयोग जरूरी नही है जैसे – ‘मेरे पास जानकारी है’ को ‘मुझे जानकारी है’ भी कह सकते हैं ।

“Has/Have” is generally used as helping or auxiliary verbs but in a simple meaning of “Possession”, we use it as the Main Verb of the sentence.

Example-

Mohan has a taxi.

Simple Present Tense with The Verb ‘To do’

Present Indefinite Tense is used to express an action in the present time, the time of action is not definite hence, it is called as INDEFINITE  TENSE.

Present Indefinite Tense में वर्तमान में होने वाली क्रिया का जिक्र होता है और इसमें क्रिया की पूर्णता की स्थिति के बारे में कुछ भी नही कहा जाता ,इसलिए इसे अनिश्चित वर्तमान काल कहा जाता है ।

Example-

I love my country.

Surabhi goes to school by bus.

She cooks tasty foods.

Uses of PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE-

  1. To express habitual/Regular/Periodic action

Example

Sheela travels by metro every day.

His father goes there every week.

Rahul goes to bed at 10 p.m.

She takes tea without sugar.

I play cricket every weekend.

2. With time expressing words

We often use adverbs of frequency like

Every day, every month, always, often, rarely usually, seldom, daily, never, sometimes, generally, hardly, habitually, once a month, all the time, and never, etc.

with the present indefinite

I sometimes go to the park.

She never plays cricket.

2. To express a universal/eternal truth.

Sun rises in the east.

Water boils at 100 C.

God is gracious.

3. To express future planned action

Sometimes Present Indefinite Tense is used for Future Tense mostly when future action is considered as an already fixed programme.

कभी कभी Future Tense के वाक्यों के लिए भी Present Indefinite Tense का  प्रयोग होता है । ऐसे ज्यादातर वाक्यों का एक्शन पहले सा फिक्स प्रोग्राम के अनुरूप होता है ।

Example-

The next flight is at 7.30 A. M. tomorrow morning.

The train leaves at 4.30.

Sentenceवाक्य
We start tomorrow.हम कल चलेंगे ।
Our school closes for summer vacation tomorrow.हमारा स्कूल गर्मियों की छुट्टियों के लिए कल बंद होगा ।
Avyan reaches India tomorrow.अव्यन कल भारत पहुंच रहा है ।
Does Ankit’s marriage come off next Sunday?क्या अंकित की शादी अगले रविवार है?

4.Proverbs

Too many cooks spoil the broth.

Honesty is the best policy.

5. To express mental activity, emotions and feelings

He understands my problems.

I consider that he is a good teacher.

notice,recognize,see,hear,appear,smell,look,seem,want,wish,feel,love, hate,consider,know,remember,etc.

6. To introduce quotations

Keats says, “A thing of beauty is a joy forever.”

7.The conditional sentence in the future

ऐसे वाक्यों में condition वाले clause को PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE

में लिखा जाता है

If you run fast, you will win the race.

Unless you work hard, you will not succeed.

8.Newspaper headlines

9.Commentary

10.Permanent action

I work here

He lives in England

11. To express possession

This pen belongs to me.

12. Exclamatory sentences start with ‘here’ or ‘there’

Here comes Nikhil every day.

There goes Rakesh with his friend.


Structure of Present Indefinite Tense – Positive

Subject + Verb (Ist form) + s/es + Object + (.)

In present indefinite tense, if the subject is third person singular, then ‘s’ or ‘es’ is added with the first form of a verb.

Present indefinite tense में यदि कर्ता ( Subject) Third Person Singular हो तब Verb के साथ ”s’ या ‘es’ जोड़ दिया जाता  है ।

 
First personI and WeSpeaking person (बोलने वाला व्यक्ति)
Second personyouPerson to whom spoken (सुनने वाला व्यक्ति)
Third person Ram, Shyam, he, she, it, they,Person(s) about whom/which spoken. ( Everyone except I, we & you). व्यक्ति / वस्तु जिसके बारे में कहा जाता है ( I, we, you’ को छोड़ कर दुनिया की बाकि सब चीजें)

 

Present Indefinite Tense – Positive
PersonSubjectV1orV5 
Ist Person -SingularIGoto school by bus.
Ist Person -PluralWeGoto school by bus.
2nd PersonYouGoto school by bus.
3rd Person -SingularHe/She/It/Ram/SeemaGoesto school by bus.
3rd Person -PluralThey/Boys/GirlsGoto school by bus.

The general rule of adding ‘s’ or ‘es’ with the verb

“es” is added with a verb which ends with the letter” “Examples
“O”Go-goes, Do-does,
“CH”Teach-teaches, Fetch-fetches
“SS”Miss-misses, Kiss-kisses
“SH”Finish-finishes, Wash-washes
“X”Box-boxes, fax-faxes
When the last letter of a verb is ‘y’ and the second last letter is a consonant, then for adding ‘s’ with the verb, the letter ‘y’ is replaced with ‘ies’

 

Example – study-studies, cry-cries, try-tries.

When the last letter of a verb is ‘y’ and the second last letter is a vowel, then we just add ‘s’ after ‘y’

Example – obey-obeys, play-plays, day-days.
In most other cases, “s” is added with the verb.

A sentence must have a verb.

एक वाक्य में एक मुख्य वर्ब होता है

When another verb comes in the sentence, ‘To’ is used before another verb(s) (other than the main verb).

और वाक्य में जब दूसरा वर्ब आता है तो दूसरे वर्ब के पहले ‘to’लगा दिया जाता है

Example- He goes to the park to see Anita.

Here the main verb is ‘go’ which is used as per the rule of the tense and another verb is ‘see’ hence ‘to’ is used before verb ‘see’.

यहाँ main verb है ‘go’ इसलिए as per rule of the tense ‘go’ के साथ ‘es’ जोड़ दिया गया है और दूसरा verb है ‘see’ इसलिए verb ‘see’ के पहले ‘to’ का प्रयोग किया गया है

When ‘Come or Go’ is used before the name of places in a sentence, ‘To’ is used after ‘Come/Go’

जब ‘Come or Go’ का प्रयोग किसी स्थान के नाम से पहले किया जाता है तो sentence
में उस स्थान के पहले ‘To’ का पुनःप्रयोग किया जाता है

‘To’ is not used before the words – ‘Home / Abroad / Here / There’

इन शब्द ‘Home / Abroad / Here / There’ से पहले ‘To’ को प्रयोग नही करते हैं ।

PositiveNegativeInterrogative
I go to the temple every day.I do not go to the temple every day.Do I go to the temple every day?
He completes his homework daily.He does not complete his homework daily.Does he complete his homework daily?
He studies in seventh class.He does not study in seventh class.Does he study in seventh class?
His sisters go to college daily.His sisters do not go to college daily.Do his sisters go to college daily?
Their sister also goes to college daily.Their sister also does not go to college daily.Does their sister also go to college daily?
My teacher loves all good students.My teacher does not love all good students.Does my teacher love all good students?
Teachers, in our school, monitor the growth of every student.Teachers, in our school, do not monitor the growth of every student.Do teachers, in our school, monitor the growth of every student?
Girls love to gossip.Girls do not love to gossip.Do girls love to gossip?
I want to help the poor boy.I do not want to help the poor boy.Do I want to help the poor boy?
He works very hard.He does not work very hard.Does he work very hard?
Teachers also support him.Teachers also do not support him.Do teachers also support him?

Structure of Present Indefinite Tense – Negative 

Subject + Do/Does + not + Verb (Ist form) + Object + (.)

In present indefinite negative sentence, ‘do not / does not’ is used before the first form of the verb. Does comes only when the subject is third person singular otherwise in all cases ‘do ’ is used.

When ‘Does’ is used in Present Indefinite Tense, then ‘s/es’ is not added with the Verb because ‘Does’ is made after adding ‘es’ with ‘do’ (Do + es = Does).

Present Indefinite – Negativeहम बॉल से नही खेलते हैं ।
PersonSubjectDo / Does 
Ist personIdo not playwith ball.
Ist Person -PluralWedo not playwith ball.
2nd PersonYoudo not playwith ball.
3rd Person -SingularHe/She/It/Ram/Seemadoes not playwith ball.
3rd Person -PluralThey/boysdo not playwith ball.

Examples 

Sentenceवाक्य
Arif does not speak the truth.आरिफ सच नही बोलता है ।
Children do not make a noise.बच्चे शोर नही करते हैं ।
I do not like your behaviour.मुझे आपका व्यवहार पसंद नही आता है ।
I do not shirk work.मैं काम से जी नही चुराता हूँ ।
Lion does not eat grass.शेर घास नही खाता है ।
Rajni does not go to the office on Saturday.रजनी शनिवार को ऑफिस नही जाती है ।
You do not need my help.तुम्हें मेरी मदद की जरूरत नही होती है ।

Structure of Present Indefinite Tense – Interrogative And Interrogative & Negative

InterrogativeDo/Does + Subject + Verb (Ist form) + Object + (?)
Interrogative & NegativeDo/Does + Subject +not + Verb (Ist form) + Object + (?)

 

Present Indefinite – Interrogativeक्या तुम रूबी से प्यार करते हो?
PersonDo/DoesSubjectNot + Verb (Ist form)Object
Ist personDoIloveRuby?
Ist Person -PluralDoweloveRuby?
2nd PersonDoyouloveRuby?
3rd Person -SingularDoeshe/she/it/RamloveRuby?
3rd Person -PluralDothey/boysloveRuby?

 

Present Indefinite – Interrogative & Negativeक्या राम मेहनत नही करता है?
PersonDo/DoesSubjectNot + Verb (Ist form)Object
Ist personDoInot workHard?
Ist Person -PluralDowenot workHard?
2nd PersonDoyounot workHard?
3rd Person -SingularDoeshe/she/it/Ramnot workHard?
3rd Person -PluralDothey/boysnot workHard?

Examples

Sentenceवाक्य
Do birds not chirp daily?क्या पक्षी रोज नही चहचहाते हैं?
Do I not obey you?क्या मैं तुम्हारा कहना नही मानता हूँ?
Do they agree with me?क्या वे मुझसे सहमत है?
Do you love me?क्या आप मुझे प्यार करते हैं?
Does he also love you?क्या वह भी आपसे प्यार करता है?
Does he want to kill his wife?क्या वह अपनी पत्नी को मारना चाहता है?
Does it rain daily in the rainy season?क्या वर्षा ऋतु में रोज बरसात होती है?
Does she not run away from me?क्या वह मुझसे दूर नही भागती है?
Does Shubhi drive car on road?क्या शुभि रोड़ पर कार चलाती है?

‘Do / Does’ is also used to emphasise something in Present Indefinite Tense

किसी बात पर जोर देने के लिए भी ‘Do/Does’ का प्रयोग होता है ।

Sentenceवाक्य
He does get up at five every day.वह प्रतिदिन पांच बजे अवश्य उठता है ।
She does know Ankit.वह अंकित को अवश्य जानती है ।
You do meet Rakhi every alternate day.तुम राखी को हर एक दिन छोड़ कर अवश्य मिलते हो ।

Sometimes Present Indefinite Tense is used for Future Tense mostly when future action is considered as an already fixed programme. 

कभी कभी फ्युचर टेन्स के वाक्यों के लिए भी प्रेसेंट इन्डेफिनेट टेन्स का प्रयोक होता है । ऐसे ज्यादातर वाक्यों का एक्शन पहले सा फिक्स प्रोग्राम के अनुरूप होता है ।

Sentenceवाक्य
We start tomorrow.हम कल चलेंगे ।
Our school closes for summer vacation tomorrow.हमारा स्कूल गर्मियों की छुट्टियों के लिए कल बंद होगा ।
Avyan reaches India tomorrow.अव्यन कल भारत पहुंच रहा है ।
Does Ankit’s marriage come off next Sunday?क्या अंकित की शादी अगले रविवार है?

अभी तक हमने देखा की सामान्य वर्तमान काल के अंत में ‘ता है’, ‘ती है’, ‘ते है’ ,का प्रयोग होता है । कुछ वाक्य ऐसे भी होते है जहाँ क्रिया ना तो जारी रहती है और ना ही पूर्ण दिखाई देती है बल्कि क्रिया सामान्य दिखाई देती है परन्तु वाक्य के अंत में ‘ता है’, ‘ती है’, ‘ते है’ नही आता है । चूंकि क्रिया सामान्य है इसलिए ऐसे वाक्य भी प्रेसेंट इन्डेफिनेट टेन्स के रुल से ही बनते हैं – जैसे़ः

वाक्यSentence
मैं आपसे सहमत हूँ ।I agree with you.
मुझे भगवान में विश्वास है ।I believe in God.
मुझे आशा है ।I hope.
मुझे अंदाजा है ।I guess.
कनिका को कुछ चाहिए ।Kanika wants something.
इस टेबल की कीमत 100 रुपए है ।This table costs Rs. 100.
हिना को नेहा की मदद चाहिए ।Heena needs help of Neha.

Changing of Sentences – Affirmative Sentence >> Negative Sentence >> Interrogative Sentence

 

PossitiveNegativeInterrogative
I go to temple every day.I do not go to temple every day.Do I go to temple every day?
He completes his homework daily.He does not complete his homework daily.Does he complete his homework daily?
He studies in seventh class.He does not study in seventh class.Does he study in seventh class?
His sisters go to college daily.His sisters do not go to college daily.Do his sisters go to college daily?
Their sister also goes to college daily.Their sister also does not go to college daily.Does their sister also go to college daily?
My teacher loves all good students.My teacher does not love all good students.Does my teacher love all good students?
Teachers, in our school, monitor growth of every student.Teachers, in our school, do not monitor growth of every student.Do teachers, in our school, monitor growth of every student?
Girls love to gossip.Girls do not love to gossip.Do girls love to gossip?
I want to help the poor boy.I do not want to help the poor boy.Do I want to help the poor boy?
He works very hard.He does not work very hard.Does he work very hard?
Teachers also support him.Teachers also do not support him.Do teachers also support him?

Exercises-

1. Good students always ……..(work) hard,

2.They …..vegetables.(not like)

3. Aditi…..her teeth everyday morning. (brush)

4.When.dose..he .come..here? (come)

5.The chief minister……….tomorrow morning and…the exibition in the evening. (arrives, opens)

6. There are some birds that ………..every year. (migrate)

7.School …..again on Jan 5th. (starts)

8.This road ……from Laxmi Nagar to Nirman Vihar. (runs)

9. The soul..is…..immortal. (Be)

10. Your elder brother never…. coffee. (drinks)

11. He is often coming to my home. (wrong) comes

12. He is studying five hours daily. (wrong) studies

Passive Voice of Present Indefinite Tense 

In a sentence, with the Passive subject (something happens with the subject or any action is done upon Subject)

we use V3 followed by the helping verb “To be” (is, are, am)

Subject + Helping Verb (is,are,am) + V3 +other word.

Whenever we use V2 or V3 it always comes with a helping verb

PRESENTPASTFUTURE
I am tired.I was tired.I will be tired.
You are injured.You were injured.You will be injured.
They are worriedThey were worriedThey will be worried

Helping verb ‘Is/Are/Am’ is used with a 3rd form of the verb for making Passive Voice of Present Indefinite Tense.

Present Indefinite Tense को Passive Voice में बदलने के लिये ‘Is/Are/Am’ और verb की 3rd form का प्रयोग होता है ।

In Active Voice of Present Indefinite Negative and Interrogative sentences, use of Do/Does is used but

for making Passive Voice only helping verbs – ‘Is/Are/Am’ are used.

Present Indefinite Active Voice के Negative और Interrogative वाक्यों में Do/Does का प्रयोग होता है

परन्तु Passive Voice बनाने के लिये Helping verb ‘Is/Are/Am’ का प्रयोग होता है ।

Helping Verb in Passive Voice is used as per the Subject of the Passive Voice (Object of Active voice which becomes Subject of Passive Voice).

If the Subject of Passive Voice is plural, Helping Verb of plurals will be used irrespective of the fact that in Active Voice, the subject was Singular.

Passive Voice में Helping Verb Passive Voice के Subject (Active Voice का Object जो Passive Voice में Subject बनता है) के अनुसार इस्तेमाल होती है ।

अगर Passive Voice का Subject बहुवचन है तो Helping Verb भी बहुवचन subject के अनुसार होगी चाहे Active Voice में Subject एकवचन हो ।

In case of a Negative sentence, ‘Not’ is added after helping verbs and in case of Interrogative sentence helping verb comes in the starting of the sentence.

Negative sentence में ‘Not’ को helping verb के बाद लगाते हैं और Interrogative sentence में helping verb वाक्य के आरंभ में लगाते हैं ।

In all types of sentences – Positive, Negative & Interrogative, 3rd form of a verb is used in Passive Voice.

Rules 

Type of SentenceRule of making Present Indefinite Tense (Active Voice)Rule of converting Present Indefinite Tense (Active Voice) to Passive Voice
PositiveSubject + Verb (Ist form) + s/es + Object + (.)Convert Object to Subject + Is/Are/Am + Verb (3rd form) + By + Convert Subject to Object + Remaining + (.)
NegativeSubject + Do/Does + not + Verb (Ist form) + Object + (.)Convert Object to Subject + Is/Are/Am + Not + Verb (3rd form) + By + Convert Subject to Object + Remaining + (.)
InterrogativeDo/Does + Subject + Verb (Ist form) + Object + (?)Is/Are/Am + Convert Object to Subject + Verb (3rd form) + By + Convert Subject to Object + Remaining + (?)

Examples 

Active VoiceActive VoicePassive VoicePassive Voice
क्या तुम अँग्रेज़ी पढते हो ?Do you read English?Is English read by you?क्या अँग्रेज़ी तुम्हारे द्वारा पढ़ी जाती है?
वह मेरी कार चलाती है ।She drives my car.My car is driven by her.मेरी कार उसके द्वारा चलाई जाती है ।
वर्तिका कनिका से प्यार करती है ।Vartika loves Kanika.Kanika is loved by Vartika.कनिका को वर्तिका के द्वारा प्यार किया जाता है ।
माली रोज पौधों को पानी देता है ।The gardener waters plants every day.Plants are watered by the gardener every day.पौधों को माली द्वारा रोज पानी दिया जाता है ।
अध्यापक आजकल विद्यार्थियों को सजा नही देते हैं ।Teachers do not punish students nowadays.Students are not punished by teachers nowadays.विद्यार्थिओं को आजकल अध्यापकों द्वारा सजा नही दी जाती है ।
वह अपनी किताबे गरीब लड़के को देती है ।She gives her books to the poor boy.The poor boy is given books by her.गरीब लड़के को उसके द्वारा किताबे दी जाती हैं ।

 

Active VoiceActive VoicePassive VoicePassive Voice
क्या तुम उसे जानते हो?Do you know him?Is he known by you?क्या वह तुम्हारे द्वारा जाना जाता है ?
वह मेरी सलाह पसंद नही करता है ।He does not like my advice.My advice is not liked by him.मेरी सलाह उसके द्वारा पसंद नही की जाती है ।
क्या वे इमर्जेन्सी में मेरी सहायता चाहते हैं?Do they require my help in emergency?Is my help required by them in emergency?क्या मेरी सहायता इमर्जेन्सी में उनके द्वारा चाही जाती है ?
जॉन टाइम पर प्रोजेक्ट पूरा करता है ।John completes the project in time.The project is completed by John in time.प्रॉजेक्ट टाइम पर जॉन द्वारा पूरा किया जाता है ।
फियोना भिखारी को खाना देती है ।Fiona gives food to the beggar.The beggar is given food by Fiona.भिखारी को खाना फियोना द्वारा दिया जाता है ।
फियोना भिखारी को खाना देती है ।Fiona gives food to the beggar.The food is given to the beggar by Fiona.खाना भिखारी को फियोना द्वारा दिया जाता है ।

NARRATION (Direct/Indirect) of SIMPLE PRESENT

Directअव्यन ने अपने पापा से कहा, “मैं तुम से प्यार करता हूँ ।”Avyan said to his father, “I love you.”
Indirectअव्यन ने अपने पापा से कहा की वह उनसे प्यार करता था ।Avyan told his father that he loved him
Directवर्तिका ने भविन से कहा, “मैं तुम्हारा अखबार पढ रही हूँ ।”Vartika said to Bhavin, “I am reading your newspaper.”
Indirectवर्तिका ने भविन से कहा की वह उनका अखबार पढ रही थी ।Vartika told Bhavin that she was reading his newspaper.
Directकनिका कहती है, “मैं स्वस्थ हूँ ।”Kanika says, “I am well”
Indirectकनिका कहती है की वह स्वस्थ है ।Kanika tells that she was well.
Directउसने कहा, “मैं तुम्हारे परिवार को अच्छी तरह जानती हूँ ।She Said, “I know your family very well.
Indirectउसने कहा की वह उसके परिवार को अच्छी तरह जानती है । वह उसके दादाजी को भी जानती है ।She said that she knew his family very well.
Directअध्यापक ने विद्यार्थियों से कहा, “सूर्य पश्चिम में अस्त होता है ।”Teacher said to students, “The sun sets in the west.”
Indirectअध्यापक ने विद्यार्थियों से कहा की सूर्य पश्चिम में अस्त होता है ।Teacher told students that the sun sets in the west.
Directनेहा ने शान्तुर से कहा, “ईमानदारी सबसे अच्छी नीति है ।”Neha said to Shantur, “Honesty is the best policy.”
Indirectनेहा ने शान्तुर से कहा की ईमानदारी सबसे अच्छी नीति है ।Neha told Shantur that Honesty is the best policy.
Directगुप्ता जी ने मुझे कहा, “तुम्हें तुम्हारा पदोन्नति पत्र कल मिलेगा ।”Gupta jee said to me, “You will get your promotion letter tomorrow.”
Indirectगुप्ता जी ने मुझसे कहा की मुझे मेरा पदोन्नति पत्र अगले दिन मिलेगा ।Gupta jee told me that I would get my promotion letter the next day.
Directउसने कहा, “मि. ओबामा यू.एस.ए. के प्रेसिडेंट है ।”He said, “Mr. Obama is the President of the USA.”
Indirectउसने कहा की “मि. ओबामा यू.एस.ए.के प्रेसिडेंट है । (तथ्य में कोई परिवर्तन नही है इसलिये Tense नही बदला)He said that Mr. Obama is the President of the USA. (Unchanged fact, hence Tense is not changed)
Sentence patterns in Present Indefinite Tense

4.  NP1 + LV + ADJ

The linking verb is followed by an adjective functioning as a subjective complement.

     

The adjectival functioning as the subjective complement may be a prepositional phrase.

     

5.  NP1 + LV + NP1

The linking verb is followed by a noun functioning as a subjective complement.

     

 Note:  The second NP receives the same numerical designation as the first NP because the second NP, the subjective complement, is the same as the subject (Joan = Buddhist).

Before you continue the lesson, read the following passage and try to see how the sentences are formed in Simple Present Tense. Mohan is a taxi driver. He has a taxi. He drives his taxi daily. But on Sundays, he doesn’t drive his taxi. He stays at home. The verb is,  has, drivestay are in the simple present Primary Helping (Auxiliary) Verbs are of three types: 1. Verbs ‘TO BE’ – Is, are, am, was, were, has/have been, had been 2. Verbs ‘TO HAVE’ – Has, have, had 3. Verbs ‘TO DO’ – Do, does, did The verb “TO BE” is used as – Is / are / am / was / were.इसका हिन्दी में अर्थ होता है “होना” (“to be” or be something). The simple meaning of the verb ” TO HAVE” denotes “possession”. ( “TO HAVE” का हिन्दी में प्रचलित अर्थ है “पास /कब्जे में होना”) । पास होना व्यक्त करने के लिए हर बार ‘पास’ शब्द का प्रयोग जरूरी नही है जैसे – ‘मेरे पास जानकारी है’ को ‘मुझे जानकारी है’ भी कह सकते हैं । ” To have” is used as – Has/have/ had. As helping or auxiliary verbs. Here we will learn about its simple meaning “Possession”. The simple meaning of the verb “To do”  is “to perform an action.” It is used as – Do/ does/did. A subject may be in three forms Static, Active or Passive. In a sentence, if a subject does not perform any action then it is called as a static subject. In a sentence, with the static subject, we use the static verb “To be”  as – am/is/are/was were/has been/had been. but when a subject performs an action then it is called as an active subject. In a sentence, with the active subject, we use the action verb “To do”  as – do/does/did. and when something happens with the subject or any action is done upon the subject then it is said to be  Passive Subject In a sentence, with the passive subject, we use the participle form of the verb.

Simple Present Tense with The Verb ‘To be’

The principal use of the simple present is to refer to an action or event that takes place habitually, but with the verb “to be” the simple present tense also refers to a present or general state, whether temporary, permanent or habitual. I am happy. She is beautiful. The verb to be in the simple present can also be  used to state about something that is true in the present moment. Example- He is 16 years old. He is a student. The verb to be is the most important verb in the English language The verb “To be” is used as – Is /are/am. इसका हिन्दी में अर्थ होता है “होना” (to be or be something). In a sentence, with a static subject (subject does not perform any action) usually, main verbs are missing there and according to their tense, we use Primary helping verb“To Be” (is, are, am) as the main verb.
Subject Pronouns To be verb
I am I am happy.
you are You are crazy.
he/she/it is He is 16 years old. She is beautiful. It is an umbrella.
we are We are friends.
Ruchi बड़ी मोहक लड़की है । Ruchi is a very charming girl.
they are They are kind boys.
Example-
मैं खुश हूँ । I am happy.
Aman घर पर है । Aman is at home.
Ruchi बड़ी मोहक लड़की है । Ruchi is a very charming girl.
ve सब विद्धार्थी हैं । They all are students.
 Ruchi कल अनुपस्थित थी । Ruchi was absent yesterday.
vah मेरे पड़ोसी थे । He was my neighbor.
ve हमेशा खुश हो । They are always cheerful.
Pakistan में सब लोग खराब नही है । All people are not bad in Pakistan.
ऐसे अवसर दुर्लभ है । Such occasions are rare.
मेरा पेट भरा हुआ है । My stomach is full.
मेरे पांच दोस्त है । I have five friends
Ruchi के बाल लम्बे हैं । Ruchi has long hair.
I कुछ भी अनुभव नही है । I have no experience.
आप एक कप चाय जरूर लीजिये । Do have a cup of tea.
 
Rule – To Be Verbs – is/am/are/was/were
Type of Sentence Rule
Positive Subject + To Be Verb (is/are/am) + object (.)
Negative Subject + To Be Verb(is/are/am) + not + object (.)
Interrogative To Be Verb(is/are/am) + Subject + object (?)
Interrogative-Negative To Be Verb(is/are/am) + Subject + Not + object (?)
Examples
Hindi एक आसान भाषा है । Hindi is an easy language.
Hindi एक आसान भाषा नही है । Hidi is not an easy language.
क्या Hindi एक आसान भाषा? Is Hindi an easy language?
He तुम्हारा दोस्त हूँ । He is your friend.
He तुम्हारा दोस्त नही हूँ ।  He is not your friend.
क्या he तुम्हारा दोस्त हूँ? Is he your friend?
वह बीमार है । He is ill.
वह बीमार नही है । He is not ill.
क्या वह बीमार है? Is he ill?
वे भूखे हैं । They are hungry.
वे भूखे नही हैं । They are not hungry.
वह हमारा किरायेदार था । He was our tenant.
वह हमारा किरायेदार नही था । He was not our tenant.
क्या वह हमारा किरायेदार नही था? Was he not our tenant?
मैं ईमानदार था । I was honest.
मैं ईमानदार नही था । I was not honest.
क्या मैं ईमानदार था? Was I honest?
क्या मैं एक ईमानदार कर्मचारी नही था? Was I not an honest worker?
रास्ता पत्थरों और गड़्ढ़ों से भरा था । The road was full of stones and holes.
वह दर्जी है । He is a tailor.
यह एक अपराध है । This is a crime.
पिछले साल फसल बहुत अच्छी थी । The crops were very well last year.
परसों शुक्रवार था । The day before yesterday was Friday.
सैर करना अच्छी आदत है । Walking is a good habit.
वह भरोसे का आदमी नही है । He is not a reliable person.
वह अपने कमरे में नही थी । She was not in her room.
वह मूर्ख लड़की है । She is an idiot girl.
यह तुम्हारा महत्वपूर्ण कार्य है । This is your important work.
केला सेहत के लिए अच्छा है । Banana is good for health.
क्या वह भूखा है? Is he hungry?
तुम्हारा बेटा भूखा और प्यासा होगा । Your son will be hungry and thirsty.
क्या वे भूखे नही है? Are they not hungry?
वहां बहुत बंदर है । There are many monkeys.
यह पढ़ना बहुत मुश्किल है । It is very difficult to read.
पूनम को सोमवार को आना है । Poonam is to come on Monday.
 Simple Present Tense with The Verb ‘To have’ The simple meaning of the verb ” To have” denotes “possession”. ( “TO HAVE” का हिन्दी में प्रचलित अर्थ है “पास /कब्जे में होना”) । पास होना व्यक्त करने के लिए हर बार ‘पास’ शब्द का प्रयोग जरूरी नही है जैसे – ‘मेरे पास जानकारी है’ को ‘मुझे जानकारी है’ भी कह सकते हैं । “Has/Have” is generally used as helping or auxiliary verbs but in a simple meaning of “Possession”, we use it as the Main Verb of the sentence. Example- Mohan has a taxi.

Simple Present Tense with The Verb ‘To do’

Present Indefinite Tense is used to express an action in the present time, the time of action is not definite hence, it is called as INDEFINITE  TENSE. Present Indefinite Tense में वर्तमान में होने वाली क्रिया का जिक्र होता है और इसमें क्रिया की पूर्णता की स्थिति के बारे में कुछ भी नही कहा जाता ,इसलिए इसे अनिश्चित वर्तमान काल कहा जाता है । Example- I love my country. Surabhi goes to school by bus. She cooks tasty foods. Uses of PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE-
  1. To express habitual/Regular/Periodic action
Example Sheela travels by metro every day. His father goes there every week. Rahul goes to bed at 10 p.m. She takes tea without sugar. I play cricket every weekend. 2. With time expressing words We often use adverbs of frequency like Every day, every month, always, often, rarely usually, seldom, daily, never, sometimes, generally, hardly, habitually, once a month, all the time, and never, etc. with the present indefinite I sometimes go to the park. She never plays cricket. 2. To express a universal/eternal truth. Sun rises in the east. Water boils at 100 C. God is gracious. 3. To express future planned action Sometimes Present Indefinite Tense is used for Future Tense mostly when future action is considered as an already fixed programme. कभी कभी Future Tense के वाक्यों के लिए भी Present Indefinite Tense का  प्रयोग होता है । ऐसे ज्यादातर वाक्यों का एक्शन पहले सा फिक्स प्रोग्राम के अनुरूप होता है । Example- The next flight is at 7.30 A. M. tomorrow morning. The train leaves at 4.30.
Sentence वाक्य
We start tomorrow. हम कल चलेंगे ।
Our school closes for summer vacation tomorrow. हमारा स्कूल गर्मियों की छुट्टियों के लिए कल बंद होगा ।
Avyan reaches India tomorrow. अव्यन कल भारत पहुंच रहा है ।
Does Ankit’s marriage come off next Sunday? क्या अंकित की शादी अगले रविवार है?
4.Proverbs Too many cooks spoil the broth. Honesty is the best policy. 5. To express mental activity, emotions and feelings He understands my problems. I consider that he is a good teacher. notice,recognize,see,hear,appear,smell,look,seem,want,wish,feel,love, hate,consider,know,remember,etc. 6. To introduce quotations Keats says, “A thing of beauty is a joy forever.” 7.The conditional sentence in the future ऐसे वाक्यों में condition वाले clause को PRESENT INDEFINITE TENSE में लिखा जाता है If you run fast, you will win the race. Unless you work hard, you will not succeed. 8.Newspaper headlines 9.Commentary 10.Permanent action I work here He lives in England 11. To express possession This pen belongs to me. 12. Exclamatory sentences start with ‘here’ or ‘there’ Here comes Nikhil every day. There goes Rakesh with his friend. Structure of Present Indefinite Tense – Positive
Subject + Verb (Ist form) + s/es + Object + (.)
In present indefinite tense, if the subject is third person singular, then ‘s’ or ‘es’ is added with the first form of a verb. Present indefinite tense में यदि कर्ता ( Subject) Third Person Singular हो तब Verb के साथ ”s’ या ‘es’ जोड़ दिया जाता  है ।
 
First person I and We Speaking person (बोलने वाला व्यक्ति)
Second person you Person to whom spoken (सुनने वाला व्यक्ति)
Third person  Ram, Shyam, he, she, it, they, Person(s) about whom/which spoken. ( Everyone except I, we & you). व्यक्ति / वस्तु जिसके बारे में कहा जाता है ( I, we, you’ को छोड़ कर दुनिया की बाकि सब चीजें)
 
Present Indefinite Tense – Positive
Person Subject V1orV5 
Ist Person -Singular I Go to school by bus.
Ist Person -Plural We Go to school by bus.
2nd Person You Go to school by bus.
3rd Person -Singular He/She/It/Ram/Seema Goes to school by bus.
3rd Person -Plural They/Boys/Girls Go to school by bus.

The general rule of adding ‘s’ or ‘es’ with the verb

“es” is added with a verb which ends with the letter” “ Examples
“O” Go-goes, Do-does,
“CH” Teach-teaches, Fetch-fetches
“SS” Miss-misses, Kiss-kisses
“SH” Finish-finishes, Wash-washes
“X” Box-boxes, fax-faxes
When the last letter of a verb is ‘y’ and the second last letter is a consonant, then for adding ‘s’ with the verb, the letter ‘y’ is replaced with ‘ies’ Example – study-studies, cry-cries, try-tries. When the last letter of a verb is ‘y’ and the second last letter is a vowel, then we just add ‘s’ after ‘y’ Example – obey-obeys, play-plays, day-days. In most other cases, “s” is added with the verb.
A sentence must have a verb. एक वाक्य में एक मुख्य वर्ब होता है When another verb comes in the sentence, ‘To’ is used before another verb(s) (other than the main verb). और वाक्य में जब दूसरा वर्ब आता है तो दूसरे वर्ब के पहले ‘to’लगा दिया जाता है Example- He goes to the park to see Anita. Here the main verb is ‘go’ which is used as per the rule of the tense and another verb is ‘see’ hence ‘to’ is used before verb ‘see’. यहाँ main verb है ‘go’ इसलिए as per rule of the tense ‘go’ के साथ ‘es’ जोड़ दिया गया है और दूसरा verb है ‘see’ इसलिए verb ‘see’ के पहले ‘to’ का प्रयोग किया गया है When ‘Come or Go’ is used before the name of places in a sentence, ‘To’ is used after ‘Come/Go’ जब ‘Come or Go’ का प्रयोग किसी स्थान के नाम से पहले किया जाता है तो sentence में उस स्थान के पहले ‘To’ का पुनःप्रयोग किया जाता है ‘To’ is not used before the words – ‘Home / Abroad / Here / There’ इन शब्द ‘Home / Abroad / Here / There’ से पहले ‘To’ को प्रयोग नही करते हैं ।
Positive Negative Interrogative
I go to the temple every day. I do not go to the temple every day. Do I go to the temple every day?
He completes his homework daily. He does not complete his homework daily. Does he complete his homework daily?
He studies in seventh class. He does not study in seventh class. Does he study in seventh class?
His sisters go to college daily. His sisters do not go to college daily. Do his sisters go to college daily?
Their sister also goes to college daily. Their sister also does not go to college daily. Does their sister also go to college daily?
My teacher loves all good students. My teacher does not love all good students. Does my teacher love all good students?
Teachers, in our school, monitor the growth of every student. Teachers, in our school, do not monitor the growth of every student. Do teachers, in our school, monitor the growth of every student?
Girls love to gossip. Girls do not love to gossip. Do girls love to gossip?
I want to help the poor boy. I do not want to help the poor boy. Do I want to help the poor boy?
He works very hard. He does not work very hard. Does he work very hard?
Teachers also support him. Teachers also do not support him. Do teachers also support him?
Structure of Present Indefinite Tense – Negative  Subject + Do/Does + not + Verb (Ist form) + Object + (.) In present indefinite negative sentence, ‘do not / does not’ is used before the first form of the verb. Does comes only when the subject is third person singular otherwise in all cases ‘do ’ is used. When ‘Does’ is used in Present Indefinite Tense, then ‘s/es’ is not added with the Verb because ‘Does’ is made after adding ‘es’ with ‘do’ (Do + es = Does).
Present Indefinite – Negative हम बॉल से नही खेलते हैं ।
Person Subject Do / Does
Ist person I do not play with ball.
Ist Person -Plural We do not play with ball.
2nd Person You do not play with ball.
3rd Person -Singular He/She/It/Ram/Seema does not play with ball.
3rd Person -Plural They/boys do not play with ball.
Examples 
Sentence वाक्य
Arif does not speak the truth. आरिफ सच नही बोलता है ।
Children do not make a noise. बच्चे शोर नही करते हैं ।
I do not like your behaviour. मुझे आपका व्यवहार पसंद नही आता है ।
I do not shirk work. मैं काम से जी नही चुराता हूँ ।
Lion does not eat grass. शेर घास नही खाता है ।
Rajni does not go to the office on Saturday. रजनी शनिवार को ऑफिस नही जाती है ।
You do not need my help. तुम्हें मेरी मदद की जरूरत नही होती है ।
Structure of Present Indefinite Tense – Interrogative And Interrogative & Negative
Interrogative Do/Does + Subject + Verb (Ist form) + Object + (?)
Interrogative & Negative Do/Does + Subject +not + Verb (Ist form) + Object + (?)
 
Present Indefinite – Interrogative क्या तुम रूबी से प्यार करते हो?
Person Do/Does Subject Not + Verb (Ist form) Object
Ist person Do I love Ruby?
Ist Person -Plural Do we love Ruby?
2nd Person Do you love Ruby?
3rd Person -Singular Does he/she/it/Ram love Ruby?
3rd Person -Plural Do they/boys love Ruby?
 
Present Indefinite – Interrogative & Negative क्या राम मेहनत नही करता है?
Person Do/Does Subject Not + Verb (Ist form) Object
Ist person Do I not work Hard?
Ist Person -Plural Do we not work Hard?
2nd Person Do you not work Hard?
3rd Person -Singular Does he/she/it/Ram not work Hard?
3rd Person -Plural Do they/boys not work Hard?
Examples
Sentence वाक्य
Do birds not chirp daily? क्या पक्षी रोज नही चहचहाते हैं?
Do I not obey you? क्या मैं तुम्हारा कहना नही मानता हूँ?
Do they agree with me? क्या वे मुझसे सहमत है?
Do you love me? क्या आप मुझे प्यार करते हैं?
Does he also love you? क्या वह भी आपसे प्यार करता है?
Does he want to kill his wife? क्या वह अपनी पत्नी को मारना चाहता है?
Does it rain daily in the rainy season? क्या वर्षा ऋतु में रोज बरसात होती है?
Does she not run away from me? क्या वह मुझसे दूर नही भागती है?
Does Shubhi drive car on road? क्या शुभि रोड़ पर कार चलाती है?
‘Do / Does’ is also used to emphasise something in Present Indefinite Tense

किसी बात पर जोर देने के लिए भी ‘Do/Does’ का प्रयोग होता है ।

Sentence वाक्य
He does get up at five every day. वह प्रतिदिन पांच बजे अवश्य उठता है ।
She does know Ankit. वह अंकित को अवश्य जानती है ।
You do meet Rakhi every alternate day. तुम राखी को हर एक दिन छोड़ कर अवश्य मिलते हो ।
Sometimes Present Indefinite Tense is used for Future Tense mostly when future action is considered as an already fixed programme. 

कभी कभी फ्युचर टेन्स के वाक्यों के लिए भी प्रेसेंट इन्डेफिनेट टेन्स का प्रयोक होता है । ऐसे ज्यादातर वाक्यों का एक्शन पहले सा फिक्स प्रोग्राम के अनुरूप होता है ।

Sentence वाक्य
We start tomorrow. हम कल चलेंगे ।
Our school closes for summer vacation tomorrow. हमारा स्कूल गर्मियों की छुट्टियों के लिए कल बंद होगा ।
Avyan reaches India tomorrow. अव्यन कल भारत पहुंच रहा है ।
Does Ankit’s marriage come off next Sunday? क्या अंकित की शादी अगले रविवार है?
अभी तक हमने देखा की सामान्य वर्तमान काल के अंत में ‘ता है’, ‘ती है’, ‘ते है’ ,का प्रयोग होता है । कुछ वाक्य ऐसे भी होते है जहाँ क्रिया ना तो जारी रहती है और ना ही पूर्ण दिखाई देती है बल्कि क्रिया सामान्य दिखाई देती है परन्तु वाक्य के अंत में ‘ता है’, ‘ती है’, ‘ते है’ नही आता है । चूंकि क्रिया सामान्य है इसलिए ऐसे वाक्य भी प्रेसेंट इन्डेफिनेट टेन्स के रुल से ही बनते हैं – जैसे़ः
वाक्य Sentence
मैं आपसे सहमत हूँ । I agree with you.
मुझे भगवान में विश्वास है । I believe in God.
मुझे आशा है । I hope.
मुझे अंदाजा है । I guess.
कनिका को कुछ चाहिए । Kanika wants something.
इस टेबल की कीमत 100 रुपए है । This table costs Rs. 100.
हिना को नेहा की मदद चाहिए । Heena needs help of Neha.

Changing of Sentences – Affirmative Sentence >> Negative Sentence >> Interrogative Sentence

 
Possitive Negative Interrogative
I go to temple every day. I do not go to temple every day. Do I go to temple every day?
He completes his homework daily. He does not complete his homework daily. Does he complete his homework daily?
He studies in seventh class. He does not study in seventh class. Does he study in seventh class?
His sisters go to college daily. His sisters do not go to college daily. Do his sisters go to college daily?
Their sister also goes to college daily. Their sister also does not go to college daily. Does their sister also go to college daily?
My teacher loves all good students. My teacher does not love all good students. Does my teacher love all good students?
Teachers, in our school, monitor growth of every student. Teachers, in our school, do not monitor growth of every student. Do teachers, in our school, monitor growth of every student?
Girls love to gossip. Girls do not love to gossip. Do girls love to gossip?
I want to help the poor boy. I do not want to help the poor boy. Do I want to help the poor boy?
He works very hard. He does not work very hard. Does he work very hard?
Teachers also support him. Teachers also do not support him. Do teachers also support him?
Exercises- 1. Good students always ……..(work) hard, 2.They …..vegetables.(not like) 3. Aditi…..her teeth everyday morning. (brush) 4.When.dose..he .come..here? (come) 5.The chief minister……….tomorrow morning and…the exibition in the evening. (arrives, opens) 6. There are some birds that ………..every year. (migrate) 7.School …..again on Jan 5th. (starts) 8.This road ……from Laxmi Nagar to Nirman Vihar. (runs) 9. The soul..is…..immortal. (Be) 10. Your elder brother never…. coffee. (drinks) 11. He is often coming to my home. (wrong) comes 12. He is studying five hours daily. (wrong) studies Passive Voice of Present Indefinite Tense  In a sentence, with the Passive subject (something happens with the subject or any action is done upon Subject) we use V3 followed by the helping verb “To be” (is, are, am) Subject + Helping Verb (is,are,am) + V3 +other word. Whenever we use V2 or V3 it always comes with a helping verb
PRESENT PAST FUTURE
I am tired. I was tired. I will be tired.
You are injured. You were injured. You will be injured.
They are worried They were worried They will be worried
Helping verb ‘Is/Are/Am’ is used with a 3rd form of the verb for making Passive Voice of Present Indefinite Tense. Present Indefinite Tense को Passive Voice में बदलने के लिये ‘Is/Are/Am’ और verb की 3rd form का प्रयोग होता है । In Active Voice of Present Indefinite Negative and Interrogative sentences, use of Do/Does is used but for making Passive Voice only helping verbs – ‘Is/Are/Am’ are used. Present Indefinite Active Voice के Negative और Interrogative वाक्यों में Do/Does का प्रयोग होता है परन्तु Passive Voice बनाने के लिये Helping verb ‘Is/Are/Am’ का प्रयोग होता है । Helping Verb in Passive Voice is used as per the Subject of the Passive Voice (Object of Active voice which becomes Subject of Passive Voice). If the Subject of Passive Voice is plural, Helping Verb of plurals will be used irrespective of the fact that in Active Voice, the subject was Singular. Passive Voice में Helping Verb Passive Voice के Subject (Active Voice का Object जो Passive Voice में Subject बनता है) के अनुसार इस्तेमाल होती है । अगर Passive Voice का Subject बहुवचन है तो Helping Verb भी बहुवचन subject के अनुसार होगी चाहे Active Voice में Subject एकवचन हो । In case of a Negative sentence, ‘Not’ is added after helping verbs and in case of Interrogative sentence helping verb comes in the starting of the sentence. Negative sentence में ‘Not’ को helping verb के बाद लगाते हैं और Interrogative sentence में helping verb वाक्य के आरंभ में लगाते हैं । In all types of sentences – Positive, Negative & Interrogative, 3rd form of a verb is used in Passive Voice. Rules 
Type of Sentence Rule of making Present Indefinite Tense (Active Voice) Rule of converting Present Indefinite Tense (Active Voice) to Passive Voice
Positive Subject + Verb (Ist form) + s/es + Object + (.) Convert Object to Subject + Is/Are/Am + Verb (3rd form) + By + Convert Subject to Object + Remaining + (.)
Negative Subject + Do/Does + not + Verb (Ist form) + Object + (.) Convert Object to Subject + Is/Are/Am + Not + Verb (3rd form) + By + Convert Subject to Object + Remaining + (.)
Interrogative Do/Does + Subject + Verb (Ist form) + Object + (?) Is/Are/Am + Convert Object to Subject + Verb (3rd form) + By + Convert Subject to Object + Remaining + (?)
Examples 
Active Voice Active Voice Passive Voice Passive Voice
क्या तुम अँग्रेज़ी पढते हो ? Do you read English? Is English read by you? क्या अँग्रेज़ी तुम्हारे द्वारा पढ़ी जाती है?
वह मेरी कार चलाती है । She drives my car. My car is driven by her. मेरी कार उसके द्वारा चलाई जाती है ।
वर्तिका कनिका से प्यार करती है । Vartika loves Kanika. Kanika is loved by Vartika. कनिका को वर्तिका के द्वारा प्यार किया जाता है ।
माली रोज पौधों को पानी देता है । The gardener waters plants every day. Plants are watered by the gardener every day. पौधों को माली द्वारा रोज पानी दिया जाता है ।
अध्यापक आजकल विद्यार्थियों को सजा नही देते हैं । Teachers do not punish students nowadays. Students are not punished by teachers nowadays. विद्यार्थिओं को आजकल अध्यापकों द्वारा सजा नही दी जाती है ।
वह अपनी किताबे गरीब लड़के को देती है । She gives her books to the poor boy. The poor boy is given books by her. गरीब लड़के को उसके द्वारा किताबे दी जाती हैं ।
 
Active Voice Active Voice Passive Voice Passive Voice
क्या तुम उसे जानते हो? Do you know him? Is he known by you? क्या वह तुम्हारे द्वारा जाना जाता है ?
वह मेरी सलाह पसंद नही करता है । He does not like my advice. My advice is not liked by him. मेरी सलाह उसके द्वारा पसंद नही की जाती है ।
क्या वे इमर्जेन्सी में मेरी सहायता चाहते हैं? Do they require my help in emergency? Is my help required by them in emergency? क्या मेरी सहायता इमर्जेन्सी में उनके द्वारा चाही जाती है ?
जॉन टाइम पर प्रोजेक्ट पूरा करता है । John completes the project in time. The project is completed by John in time. प्रॉजेक्ट टाइम पर जॉन द्वारा पूरा किया जाता है ।
फियोना भिखारी को खाना देती है । Fiona gives food to the beggar. The beggar is given food by Fiona. भिखारी को खाना फियोना द्वारा दिया जाता है ।
फियोना भिखारी को खाना देती है । Fiona gives food to the beggar. The food is given to the beggar by Fiona. खाना भिखारी को फियोना द्वारा दिया जाता है ।
NARRATION (Direct/Indirect) of SIMPLE PRESENT
Direct अव्यन ने अपने पापा से कहा, “मैं तुम से प्यार करता हूँ ।” Avyan said to his father, “I love you.”
Indirect अव्यन ने अपने पापा से कहा की वह उनसे प्यार करता था । Avyan told his father that he loved him
Direct वर्तिका ने भविन से कहा, “मैं तुम्हारा अखबार पढ रही हूँ ।” Vartika said to Bhavin, “I am reading your newspaper.”
Indirect वर्तिका ने भविन से कहा की वह उनका अखबार पढ रही थी । Vartika told Bhavin that she was reading his newspaper.
Direct कनिका कहती है, “मैं स्वस्थ हूँ ।” Kanika says, “I am well”
Indirect कनिका कहती है की वह स्वस्थ है । Kanika tells that she was well.
Direct उसने कहा, “मैं तुम्हारे परिवार को अच्छी तरह जानती हूँ । She Said, “I know your family very well.
Indirect उसने कहा की वह उसके परिवार को अच्छी तरह जानती है । वह उसके दादाजी को भी जानती है । She said that she knew his family very well.
Direct अध्यापक ने विद्यार्थियों से कहा, “सूर्य पश्चिम में अस्त होता है ।” Teacher said to students, “The sun sets in the west.”
Indirect अध्यापक ने विद्यार्थियों से कहा की सूर्य पश्चिम में अस्त होता है । Teacher told students that the sun sets in the west.
Direct नेहा ने शान्तुर से कहा, “ईमानदारी सबसे अच्छी नीति है ।” Neha said to Shantur, “Honesty is the best policy.”
Indirect नेहा ने शान्तुर से कहा की ईमानदारी सबसे अच्छी नीति है । Neha told Shantur that Honesty is the best policy.
Direct गुप्ता जी ने मुझे कहा, “तुम्हें तुम्हारा पदोन्नति पत्र कल मिलेगा ।” Gupta jee said to me, “You will get your promotion letter tomorrow.”
Indirect गुप्ता जी ने मुझसे कहा की मुझे मेरा पदोन्नति पत्र अगले दिन मिलेगा । Gupta jee told me that I would get my promotion letter the next day.
Direct उसने कहा, “मि. ओबामा यू.एस.ए. के प्रेसिडेंट है ।” He said, “Mr. Obama is the President of the USA.”
Indirect उसने कहा की “मि. ओबामा यू.एस.ए.के प्रेसिडेंट है । (तथ्य में कोई परिवर्तन नही है इसलिये Tense नही बदला) He said that Mr. Obama is the President of the USA. (Unchanged fact, hence Tense is not changed)
Sentence patterns in Present Indefinite Tense
4.  NP1 + LV + ADJ The linking verb is followed by an adjective functioning as a subjective complement.       The adjectival functioning as the subjective complement may be a prepositional phrase.       5.  NP1 + LV + NP1 The linking verb is followed by a noun functioning as a subjective complement.        Note:  The second NP receives the same numerical designation as the first NP because the second NP, the subjective complement, is the same as the subject (Joan = Buddhist).