PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

Present perfect Tense is used to express an action that occurred or completed at some point in the past but its effect is still continued in present.

Present perfect Tense का प्रयोग अतीत में सम्पन्न (पूर्ण )हुए किसी ऐसे कार्य को व्यक्त करने के लिए किया जाता है जिसका प्रभाव वर्तमान में भी रहता है ।

This tense expresses an idea of completion or occurrence of an action in past without giving an idea about the exact time of its occurrence.

हिन्दी में Present Perfect Tense की पहचान – वाक्य के अंत में आया है, गया है, गई है, लिया है, चुका है, चुकी है, चुके हैं आदि का प्रयोग होता है ।

Characteristic of this tense is that work has already been completed but we feel the impact of that work in the present time or we say something about completed work e.g.

He has won the match.

इस टेन्स की विशेषता यह है कि इसमे कार्य तो पूर्ण हो चुका होता है लेकिन उस कार्य का प्रभाव वर्तमान में महसूस करते हैं या उसके संबंध में कुछ कहते हैं – जैसे –

वह मैच जीत चुका है (इसलिए अब वह खुश है) ।

Structure of Sentence

  Subject + Has/Have + Verb (3rd form) + Object + (.)

In Present Perfect Tense, Helping Verb ‘has/have’ is used with the 3rd form of Main Verb.  When a subject is a third person-singular use ‘Has’ and with all other subjects ‘Have’ is used.

Present Perfect Tense में Helping Verb  ‘has/have’ और Main Verb की Third form (Past Participle) का प्रयोग होता है । ‘Has’ का प्रयोग तभी होता है जब सब्जेक्ट Third Person Singular हो. शेष सभी Subjects के साथ ‘have’ का प्रयोग होता है ।

Present Perfect Tense – Positive मैने नई कार खरीद ली है ।
Person Subject Has/Have + Verb (3rd Form) Object
Ist person I have bought a new car.
Ist Person -Plural We have bought a new car.
2nd Person You have bought a new car.
3rd Person -Singular He/She/It/Ram/Seema has bought a new car.
3rd Person -Plural They/boys have bought a new car.

Present perfect Tense  is used to express any accomplishment or life experience

Present perfect Tense का उपयोग किसी भी उपलब्धि या जीवन अनुभव को व्यक्त करने के लिए किया जाता है

Here’s a tip: pay close attention to adverbs. Adverbs give hints, or clues, about which verb tense you should use. Take a look at the reference list below.

A good way to practice the present perfect is to ask an English-speaking friend if he or she has ever done something. “Have you ever flown in an airplane?” or “Have you ever seen the Grand Canyon?” You could even ask something more profound like, “Have you ever seen the rain coming down on a sunny day?”

I wanna know have you ever seen the rain
Coming down on a sunny day?

Present perfect Tense can express a repeated action. When an action happened more than one time in the past, use the present perfect.

For example,

“I have seen the movie three times”.

DIFFERENCE BETWEEN SIMPLE PAST AND PRESENT PERFECT TENSE

I saw the Taj. (Simple Past Tense)

I have seen the Taj. ( Present Perfect Tense)

Both the above sentences refer to an action that was finished in the past. But there is one important difference:

“I saw the Taj.” suggests that you saw the Taj at a specific time in the past.

“I have seen the Taj.” suggests that you saw the Taj at an unknown time in the past.

We use the simple past to talk about a finished action that happened at a specific time.

For example, “I went out with my friends last night.”

The adverb “last night” is not required, but it does help clarify that the event happened at a specific time in the past.

Now let’s talk about the present perfect.

For example, “I have graduated from college”

The present perfect confuses English learners because it refers to a past action.

It is also called “present perfect” because speakers use it to stress the importance of a past event in the present.

The sentence “I have graduated from college,” emphasizes the present effect of a past event — graduation.

The exact time of the graduation is not important. The exact time when the action occurred, is not given in the sentence.

If time is given in the sentence, then it will not remain Present Perfect Tense but it will become Past Indefinite Tense.

इस टेन्स के वाक्यों में कार्य घटित होने का समय नही दिया होता है । अगर वाक्य में समय दिया हो तो वह Present Perfect Tense नही रहेगा  बल्कि वह Past Indefinite Tense बन जाता है जैसे –

I have taken my meal – Present Perfect Tense.

After mentioning time ‘at 3 pm’ if we write

‘I have taken my meal at 3 pm'( is incorrect.)

When the time comes in the sentence it becomes Past Indefinite and it will be written as –

I took my meal at 3 pm.

Adverbs of Past Time e.g. last night/year/month/week, ago, a short while ago, yesterday, the day before yesterday does not come in Present Perfect Tense.

भूतकाल के Adverb जैसे
पिछली(पिछले) रात/साल/महिने/सप्ताह, पहले, कल, परसों (last night/year/month/week, ago, a short while ago, yesterday, day before yesterday) आदि का प्रयोग Present Perfect Tense  में नही किया जाता है ।

Certain indicator words may come in between sentences e.g.

“just, yet, so far, up to now, recently, etc”

which in appearance looks like past indefinite sentences, but they are present perfect sentences.

वाक्य में कुछ शब्द – “just, yet, so far, up to now, recently, etc”(“अभी, अब तक, तब से, तब तक”)का प्रयोग किया जा सकता है जो देखने में Past Indefinite के वाक्य प्रतीत होते हैं हैं, किंतु वास्तव में वह Present Perfect के वाक्य होता हैं जैसे –
वह अभी तक नही आया है ।

 

Sentence वाक्य
I have just come. मैं बस अभी आया हूँ ।
Has he not returned your money as yet? क्या उसने तुम्हारा पैसा अभी तक वापस नही किया?
He has not completed the job so far. उसने अब तक काम पूरा नही किया है ।
The doctor has not reached hospital as yet. डाक्टर अभी तक अस्पताल नही पहुंचा है ।
I have not bathed since Monday. मैं सोमवार से नही नहाया हूँ ।
She has not met me for the last two months. वह मुझे दो महिने से नही मिली है ।
We have lived in this city for one year. हम इस शहर में एक वर्ष रह चुके हैं ।
Have you known me since 2006? क्या तुम मुझे 2006 से जान गए हो?
Rohit has not gone to the office since Wednesday. रोहित बुधवार से ऑफिस नही गया है ।
She has worked in our office for a few months. वह कुछ महिने हमारे ऑफिस में काम कर चुकी है ।
Have I cheated him? क्या मैने उसे धोखा दिया है?
He has not taken all precautions. उसने पूरी सावधानी नही बरती है ।
Has any judge given death sentence to any rapist? क्या किसी जज ने किसी बलात्कारी को मौत की सजा सुनाई है?
Children have now disclosed all the old secrets of their childhood. बच्चों ने अब अपने बचपन के पुराने सारे राज खोल दिए हैं ।
She has come to see only me u0026amp; my wife. वह केवल मुझे और मेरी पत्नी से मिलने आई है ।
The king has distributed all his wealth among poor people. राजा ने अपना सारा धन गरीबों में बांट दिया है ।
Has the king now become a poor man? क्या अब रा

 

In present perfect tense, use of continuous time may also come – means some work started in past and continues up to present like –

for few days, for ten days, since Wednesday, since 2011.

In such cases, ‘for’ is used for an uncertain period and ‘since’ is used for a certain period.

Present Perfect Tense के वाक्यों में लगातार समय का प्रयोग आ सकता है । यानि कोई कार्य भूतकाल से शुरु होकर वर्तमान तक होता रहे जैसे – कुछ दिनों से, दस दिन से, बुधवार से, 2011 से । ऐसे केसस् में, ‘for’ का प्रयोग अनिश्चित समय के लिए किया जाता है और ‘since’ का प्रयोग निश्चित समय के लिए प्रयोग किया जाता है ।

It is common to use the present perfect with the words “for” and “since.” “For” and “since” are adverbs that tell about the duration of an activity. They answer the question “how long?”

For example,

“I have studied English for a long time”.

The negative adverb “never” requires the present perfect.

You can say, “I have never been to France.”

You would not say, “I did never go to France.”

When asking a question in the present perfect, use “ever,” as in, “Have you ever won the lottery?”

Present Perfect Tense is used for an action started in past and still continuing like –

Mandeep has worked in our factory for five years.

In this example, Mandeep is still working in the factory.

If now Mandeep is not working, then correct sentence would be –

Mandeep worked in our factory for five years. (means now he is not working in the factory)

भूतकाल में प्रारम्भ  हुई क्रिया अभी भी जारी है – इसको व्यक्त करने के लिए भी Present Perfect Tense का प्रयोग होता है । जैसे –

मंदीप ने हमारी फैक्टरी में 5 साल से काम किया है ।

इसका मतलब वह अभी भी काम कर रहा है ।

अगर वह अब काम नही करता तो Present Perfect Tense का प्रयोग नही होगा और वाक्य बनेगा –

मंदीप ने हसारी फैक्टरी में 5 साल तक था काम किया था (अब नही करता है) ।

Second, it is common to use the present perfect with the words “for” and “since.” “For” and “since” are adverbs that tell about the duration of an activity. They answer the question “how long?”

For example, “I have studied English for a long time”.

Third, the negative adverb “never” requires the present perfect.

You can say, “I have never been to France.”

You would not say, “I did never go to France.”

Finally, when asking a question in the present perfect, use “ever,” as in,

“Have you ever won the lottery?”

Present Perfect Tense – Negative

Subject + Has/Have + Not + Verb (3rd form) + Object + (.)

In a Negative sentence, ‘Not’ is added after helping Verb-“Has/Have” and before ‘3rd form of the main verb’.

इसके Negative sentence  में ‘Not’ को helping verb – Has/Have के बाद और Main Verb की Third form से पहले लगाते हैं ।

Present Perfect Tense – Interrogative And Interrogative u0026amp; Negative 

Present Perfect Tense – Interrogative And Interrogative u0026amp; Negative
Type of Sentence Rule
Interrogative Has/Have + Subject + Verb (3rd form) + Object + (?)
Interrogative u0026amp; Negative Has/Have + Subject + Not + Verb (3rd form) + Object + (?)

The present Perfect Interrogative sentence starts with HV ‘Has/Have’.

Present Perfect Interrogative वाक्य ‘Has/Have’ से शुरु होते हैं ।

 

Present Perfect Tense – Interrogative क्या वह सुबह सो चुकी है ?
Person Has/Have Subject Verb (3st form) Object
Ist person Have I slept in the morning?
Ist Person -Plural Have we slept in the morning?
2nd Person Have you slept in the morning?
3rd Person -Singular Has he/she/it/Ram slept in the morning?
3rd Person -Plural Have they/boys slept in the morning?

In Interrogative and Negative Sentence, ‘not’ is added just before 3rd Form of ‘Main Verb ‘

Interrogative and Negative  वाक्यों में Main Verb के Third Form से पहले ‘Not’ लगाते हैं ।

 

Present Perfect Tense – Interrogative u0026amp; Negative क्या तुमने उसे फटकार नही लगाई है?
Person Has/Have Subject Not + Verb (3rd form) Object
Ist person Have I not rebuked him?
Ist Person -Plural Have we not rebuked him?
2nd Person Have you not rebuked him?
3rd Person -Singular Has he/she/it/Ram not rebuked him?
3rd Person -Plural Have they/boys not rebuked him?

 

In Interrogative u0026amp; Negative sentences, ‘Not’ is written after Subject but before Main Verb

i.e. Have I not informed you earlier?.

However, when we write it in short form, we can write like this –

Haven’t I informed you earlier?

इसके Interrogative u0026amp; Negative (नकारात्मक और प्रश्नवाचक) वाक्यों में, ‘Not’ का प्रयोग Subject के बाद परंतु Main Verb से पहले किया जाता
है जैसे –

Has he not gone to school?

 परंतु जब हम Short Form में लिखते हैं तो इस प्रकार भी लिख सकते हैं –

Hasn’t he gone to school?

 

Passive Voice of Present Perfect Tense 

Rules 

To change Active Voice sentence in Passive Voice, Subject is converted to Object and  Object is converted to Subject.

Active Voice वाक्य को Passive Voice  बनाने के लिये Subject को Object  में तथा Object को Subject में बदल दिया जाता है ।

For making Passive Voice of Present Perfect Tense, helping verb ‘Has/Have + Been‘ is used with the 3rd form of Main Verb.

 Present Perfect Tense को Passive Voice में बदलने के लिये सहायक क्रिया (Helping Verb)  ‘Has/Have + Been‘ और MainVerb की 3rd form का प्रयोग किया जाता है ।

In Passive Voice helping Verb is used as per the Subject of the Passive Voice (Object of Active voice which becomes Subject of Passive Voice). If the Subject of Passive Voice is singular, Helping Verb of singular will be used irrespective of the fact that in Active Voice, the subject was Plural.

Passive Voice में Helping Verb का इस्तेमाल Passive Voice के Subject (Active Voice का Object जो Passive Voice में Subject बनता है) के अनुसार किया जाता  है । अगर Passive Voice का Subject Singular है तो Helping Verb भी singular subject के अनुसार होगी चाहे Active Voice में Subject Plural हो ।

Type of Sentence Rule of making Present Perfect Tense (Active Voice) Rule of converting Present Perfect Tense (Active Voice) to Passive Voice
Positive Subject + Has/Have + Verb (3rd form) + Object + (.) Convert Object to Subject + Has/Have + Been + Verb (3rd form) + By + Convert Subject to Object + Remaining + (.)
Negative Subject + Has/Have + Not + Verb (3rd form) + Object + (.) Convert Object to Subject + Has/Have + Not + Been + Verb (3rd form) + By + Convert Subject to Object + Remaining + (.)
Interrogative Has/Have + Subject + Verb (3rd form) + Object + (?) Has/Have + Convert Object to Subject + Been + Verb (3rd form) + By + Convert Subject to Object + Remaining + (?)

In a Negative sentence, ‘Not’ is added between ‘Has/Have’ and ‘Been’ and

 नकारात्मक वाक्यों (Negative sentence ) में ‘Not’ को ‘Has/Have’ और ‘Been’ के बीच में लगाते है

in Interrogative sentence ‘Has/Have’ comes in the starting of the sentence and place of ‘Been’ remains before Verb (3rd form)

 प्रश्नसूचक वाक्यों  (Interrogative sentence) में ‘Has/Have’ वाक्य के प्रारम्भ  में लगाते हैं ।

In all types of sentences – Positive, Negative u0026amp; Interrogative,  always the 3rd form of the verb is used in Passive Voice.

सभी प्रकार के Passive Voice वाक्यों – Positive, Negative u0026amp; Interrogative में verb की 3rd form का प्रयोग  किया जाता है

Examples 

Sheetal has gifted a new car to his mother.

Her mother has been gifted a new car by Sheetal.

A new car has been gifted by Sheetal to her mother.

EXERCISES-

1. Females (1)/ are not appointed (2)/ in our college. (3)/ No error. (4)

 
 
 
 

2. The officer (1)/ is angry on the clerk (2)/ for not attending to the work. (3)/ No error. (4)

 
 
 
 

3. The patient (1)/ was accompanied (2)/ with his friend. (3)/ No error. (4)

 
 
 
 

4. When shall we (1)/ arrive (2)/ to our destination? (3)/ No error. (4)

 
 
 
 

5.  

Our new neighbours (1)/ had been living in Arizona (2)/ since ten years before moving to their present house. (3)/ No error. (4)

 
 
 
 

6. You will be prosecuted (1)/ for bringing seeds (2)/ into Australia. ( (3)/ No error. (4)

 
 
 
 

7.  

Computer education (1)/ in universities and colleges (2) leaves much to be desired. (3)/ No error. (4)

 
 
 
 

8.  

You must either tell me (1)/ the whole story or, at least (2)/ the first half of it. (3)/ No error. (4)

 
 
 
 

9. No sooner (1)/ I had spoken, (2) than he left. (3)/ No error. (4)

 
 
 
 

10. Based on the newspaper reports, (1)/ we can conclude that (2)/ many accidents caused by reckless driving. (3)/

No error. (4)